"…The international monetary system also now faces a clear and present danger: currency wars. Virtually every major country is seeking depreciation, or at least non-appreciation, of its currency to strengthen its economy and create jobs....The “target list” of manipulators for priority policy response identified... includes China, Denmark, Hong Kong, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Switzerland and Taiwan, which accounted for half the estimated amount of unjustified intervention in 2011 ....Japan should be put on a “watch list,” ... Most of the remaining intervention is by major oil exporters, both members of OPEC led by Saudi Arabia and non-members such as Norway and Russia. ...
....John Connally [four days after the Nixon shocks of August 1971 when a global currency war led the US to abandon the gold standard]:
“I appreciate the advice from you gentlemen and want to share my own philosophy with you before we break up: the foreigners are out to screw us and our job is to screw them first. Thank you and goodbye.”From C Fred Bergsten's 'Currency Wars, the Economy of the United States and Reform of the International Monetary System'
[Common denominator 1971, 2013: Peaks in oil production.]