Here are two discussions about how
McCloskey, Donald N. 1985. The Rhetoric of Economics (
140: "In seminars in economics it is common for the speaker to present a statistical result, apparently irrefutable by the rules of positive economics, yet to be met by choruses of "I can't believe it" or "It doesn't make sense." Milton Friedman's own Money Workshop at
Reder, Melvin W. 198
13: "Any apparent inconsistency of empirical findings with implications of the theory, or report of behavior not implied by the theory, is interpreted as anomalous and requiring one of the following actions: (i) re-examination of the data to reverse the anomalous finding; (ii) redefinition and/or augmentation of the variables in the model...; (iii) alteration of the theory to accommodate behavior inconsistent with the postulates of rationality... (iv) placing the finding on the research agenda as a researchability anomaly."
13: It is customary to confront theory with evidence. By contrast, "
18: The major objective is to convert non economists to their way of thinking.
19: "However imaginative, answers that violate any maintained hypothesis of the paradigm, are penalized as evincing failure to absorb training."